苏州桑拿

first_img Organisation Help by sharing this information Follow the news on Egypt News Detained woman journalist pressured by interrogator, harassed by prison staff EgyptMiddle East – North Africa Al Jazeera journalist Mahmoud Hussein back home after four years in prison February 6, 2021 Find out more to go further News EgyptMiddle East – North Africa center_img Receive email alerts Less press freedom than ever in Egypt, 10 years after revolution Reporters Without Borders (Reporters sans frontières – RSF) protested today to the Egyptian government about the arrest of two journalists from the Qatari TV station Al Jazeera, cameraman Mohamed Izz-Eddin En-Najjar and sound engineer Mohamed Eid Jalal. “We ask that arbitrary arrests like this do not happen again and that you ensure the media can freely do their work,” RSF secretary-general Robert Ménard said in a letter to interior minister Habib Ibrahim Habib al-Adli.According to the information collected by RSF, the two journalists were picked up on the morning of 5 March in Alexandria after they had filmed a student demonstration at the university in support of the Palestinian people and the second Intifada. They were arrested as they were putting their equipment back in their vehicle and police seized their camera, film and the vehicle. The cameraman was freed nearly three hours later and the sound engineer the following afternoon. The authorities said they had been arrested because they did not have permission to film inside the university. The material has been restored to the team. February 1, 2021 Find out more March 6, 2002 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Al Jazeera journalists arrested RSF_en News News January 22, 2021 Find out morelast_img read more

first_img Published on December 21, 2017 at 4:47 pm Contact Andrew: [email protected] | @A_E_Graham AdvertisementThis is placeholder textJohnson does not have a scholarship offer from Syracuse, per 247sports.com, and only Colorado and Florida have extended scholarships. There is still an SU connection for Johnson, as his father, Kevin Johnson Sr., played wide receiver for the Orange in the late 1990s. With no scholarship offer, Johnson will likely join the team as a preferred walk-on.Playing at IMG (Florida) Academy, Johnson played alongside two future teammates at SU in defensive back Andre Cisco and linebacker Juan Wallace. Ranked just a two-star prospect, Johnson stands 5-feet, 11-inches tall and weighs 185 pounds, per 247sports.com. He runs a 4.54-second 40-yard dash and 4.15-second shuttle, per his Hudl.com profile.Syracuse already had four wide receivers in the Class of 2018, and signed all four yesterday on the opening of the new early signing period. Track the rest of Dino Babers’ 2018 class here. Class of 2018 wide receiver Kevin Johnson Jr. committed to Syracuse on Thursday afternoon in a tweet. Comments Facebook Twitter Google+last_img read more

first_imgThe 42-year-old Swede had an 18-under 192 total on the LaCantera Golf Club Resort Course after opening with rounds of 61 and 65. He won the last of his five PGA Tour titles in the 2001 Honda Classic. Fellow Swede Mathias Gronberg was 15 under after a 65. Texan Justin Leonard, the 2000 and ’01 winner, was 14 under after a 64, and Ryan Armour (64), Daniel Chopra (64), Shigeki Maruyama (65) and Chris Stroud (64) followed at 12 under. ETC.: Suzann Pettersen chipped in from 35 yards for an eagle on the ninth hole and finished with an 8-under 64 for the lead in the Longs Drugs Challenge in Danville. Pettersen, the 26-year-old Norwegian who won the Michelob Ultra Open in May for her first LPGA Tour title and took the McDonald’s LPGA Championship in June for her first major victory, had a 12-under 204 total for a one-stroke lead over Canadian Lorie Kane (67). Lorena Ochoa (67) was another stroke behind. … Loren Roberts overcame a slow start to shoot a 3-under 67 and take a three-stroke lead over Fred Funk after three rounds of the Senior Players Championship, the Champions Tour’s final major of the year. After making 14 birdies and only four bogeys over the first 54 holes at Timonium, Md., Roberts is at 10-under 200. Tom Watson carded a 68 to move into third place at 5 under. Horse racing Artiste Royal edged The Tin Man by a length in the $250,000 Clement L. Hirsch Handicap at Santa Anita’s Oak Tree meeting. Ridden by Joe Talamo, Artiste Royal ran 1 miles on the turf course in 1:59.89 and paid $11.20, $3.80 and $2.80. The Tin Man returned $2.20 and $2.10, and Isipingo paid $3.80 to show. Ireland-bred Artiste Royal, winless in nine previous U.S. starts, ran down defending champion The Tin Man, a 9-year-old gelding, in midstretch. ETC.: War Pass took the early lead and never missed a beat, cruising to an easy 1 -length victory in the $400,000 Champagne Stakes at Belmont Park. The 2-year-old colt improved to 3-for-3 for trainer Nick Zito and is sure to be among the favorites for the $2 million Breeders’ Cup Juvenile at New Jersey’s Monmouth Park Oct. 27. … Tragic breakdowns – at least two of them fatal – marred a record slate of stakes races at Keeneland in which four horses earned automatic spots in the Breeders’ Cup. Teuflesberg, the 17th-place finisher in the Kentucky Derby, pulled up short in the Grade 3 Phoenix Handicap with fractures to his left front foot. There was no immediate word on his condition. Dream of Angels was euthanized after he was injured while being saddled for the Phoenix. … Donato Hanover matched the fastest mile ever by a trotter, winning the $742,000 Kentucky Futurity in 1:50.1 at The Red Mile in Lexington. Donato Hanover matched the record set earlier in the day by Giant Diablo and set a record for 3-year-old colt trotters en route to his 19th straight victory. Tennis Top-seeded Venus Williams was upset by Virginie Razzano, 4-6, 7-6 (7), 6-4, in the final of the Japan Open in Tokyo. Williams had three match points in the tiebreaker of the second set, but couldn’t finish off Razzano, who won her second straight WTA tournament. On the men’s side, top-seeded David Ferrer of Spain defeated Ivo Karlovic of Croatia, 7-6 (3), 6-3, and will face Richard Gasquet of France in today’s final. ETC.: Top-ranked Justine Henin defeated Jelena Jankovic, 7-6 (2), 7-5, and will play Tatiana Golovin for the title of the Porsche Grand Prix in Stuttgart, Germany. Golovin upset second-ranked Svetlana Kuznetsova, 6-2, 6-4. … Top seed Tommy Robredo defeated Nicolas Mahut of France, 7-5, 4-6, 6-4, in the semifinals of the Moselle Open in Metz, France. The Spaniard faces third-seeded Andy Murray in today’s final. Rugby France ousted favorite New Zealand, 20-18, and England upset Australia, 12-10, as the Rugby World Cup underdogs had their day in Paris. Figure skating Caroline Zhang and Johnny Weir helped the United States defeat Japan in a team figure skating competition at Yokohama, Japan. The U.S. women defeated the heavily favored Japanese women, featuring world champion Miki Ando, by a total of 289.00 points to 284.90. The U.S. men outpaced Japan, 362.81 to 334.48. Cycling Jennie Reed won her third championship at this week’s national meet when she, Sarah Hammer and Dotsie Bausch teamed to win the first-ever women’s team pursuit by a whopping 9 seconds at the ADT Event Center in Carson.160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREChargers go winless in AFC West with season-ending loss in Kansas CityJones pleaded guilty Friday in the U.S. District Court in White Plains, N.Y. to lying to federal investigators when she denied using performance-enhancing drugs. After the hearing, she announced her retirement. “A lot of people believed in the achievements of Marion Jones and this confession leaves a bitter taste, and tarnishes the image of a sport in which a majority of athletes are honest and clean,” Diack said. ETC.: Katerina Thanou’s lawyer insists the Greek sprinter deserves the 100-meter gold medal from the 2000 Sydney Olympics after finishing runner-up to Jones. Michalis Dimitrakopoulos had the nerve to make the statement even Thanou was, was at the center of a doping scandal at the Athens Games four years later. “I believe that since (Jones) used banned substances and undeservedly won the race with the use of illegal means, it would be correct for her to lose the gold medal. It should deservedly be awarded to Ms. Thanou,” he said. Golf Jesper Parnevik moved a step closer to his first PGA Tour victory in 6 years, shooting a 4-under 66 to take a three-stroke lead into the final round of the Texas Open in San Antonio. From news services Lamine Diack, the head of IAAF, track and field’s governing body, branded Marion Jones as “one of the biggest frauds in sporting history.” Diack said Saturday he was “deeply disappointed” with the news that Jones had admitted to taking banned drugs when she won three Olympic golds and two bronze medals in 2000. “If she had trusted to her own natural gifts and allied them to self sacrifice and hard work I sincerely believe that she could have been an honest champion at the Sydney Games,” Diack said in a statement. “Now, instead, Marion Jones will be remembered as one of the biggest frauds in sporting history.” last_img read more

first_img latest revealed “They’re not all that, they’re nothing special!“Their real form is being shown in the Champions League, where twice they have been embarrassed.” Champions League football has become the norm and, with Pochettino ready to splash the cash in January and a brand new stadium on the way, it would appear the north Londoners are in a club in the ascendancy.However, Durham is less convinced and believes Spurs have failed to deliver in the games that matter this season.“Nothing has changed, that’s why I am saying ‘Spurs…so what?’, Durham said on talkSPORT Drivetime.“What exactly have they done? Scrappy win against Cardiff, scrappy win against West Ham, I can’t see any difference. tense Harry Kane reacts after a missed opportunity gameday cracker 2 2 Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT Green reveals how he confronted Sarri after Chelsea’s 6-0 defeat at Man City Sky Sports presenter apologises for remarks made during Neville’s racism discussion Liverpool news live: Klopp reveals when Minamino will play and issues injury update The average first-team salaries at every Premier League club in 2019 scrap Arsenal transfer news LIVE: Ndidi bid, targets named, Ozil is ‘skiving little git’ LATEST BEST OF Adrian Durham has slammed Tottenham and insisted ‘nothing has changed’, despite the club making their best ever start to a Premier League season.Mauricio Pochettino, the manager, has completely revamped Spurs in just four short years and turned them from a mid-table team to genuine title contenders. Gerrard launches furious touchline outburst as horror tackle on Barisic sparks chaos Most Popular Football News “They come up against a decent side, they lose! People might say ‘well they beat Man United’, but Man United have not been a decent side this season.”Spurs are currently fourth in the table, level on points with unbeaten rivals Chelsea and just two points off leaders Liverpool and Manchester City.However, after failing to pick up a single point in their opening two Champions League games, Durham is convinced the mentality around the club remains the same. In fact, he went as far as to say they were ‘nothing special’.He continued: “I would take issue with anyone who thinks things have changed at Spurs and this great start to the season. It’s only a great start based on their previous starts which haven’t been that great. Every time Ally McCoist lost it on air in 2019, including funny XI reactions SORRY Back-to-back defeats have left Spurs on the brink of an early Champions League exit last_img read more

first_imgAt last week’s meeting in Sacramento, the California Fish and Game Commission accepted a petition to list Upper Klamath-Trinity River Spring Chinook Salmon as endangered, starting the process of a status review to be completed by the CDFW. The one-year review will determine if a CESA listing by the Commission may be warranted. After reviewing the best scientific data available, CDFW will either make a recommendation to the Commission to list the springers as either endangered or threatened. …last_img read more

first_imgThe Americans took home 239 medals, including 78 golds. Germany, the second placed country on the medal table, had 13 medals in all, with third-placed Cuba on nine. The country finished 23rd on the medal table. Once more, the USA was number one, with 22 gold medals and a total of 56 medals in all. Germany finished second and Finland third. Four years later, in London, South Africa won its first Olympic medals, with Reggie Walker winning the prestigious 100 metres gold and Charles Hefferon claiming second place in the marathon. South Africa ended 18th on the medal table. The USA finished first, with 45 gold medals and a total of 99. Finland placed second and France third. The country produced a single champion again. Sydney Atkinson, a silver medallist four years earlier, won the gold medal in the 110m hurdles. The men’s pursuit team, made up of Walker, Smith, Kaltenbrun and Harry Goosen added a bronze medal, and tennis player Charles Winslow, the winner of a gold medal in the men’s singles eight years earlier in Stockholm, took home a bronze medal this time around. In terms of gold medals won, the 1912 Stockholm Games rank as the most successful Olympics in South Africa’s history. The only gold medal came from bantamweight boxer William Smith. Having just turned 20, he was the youngest ever Olympic boxing champion. Four years later, after a 28-year break, the Olympic Games returned to the United States and were hosted by Los Angeles. Despite winning just two medals, South Africa placed 14th on the medal table. Eddie Peirce was South Africa’s third medal winner in boxing, with a bronze medal in the middleweight division. Stockholm 1912 Amsterdam 1928 In 1928 the host city was Amsterdam. South Africa, for the first time competing under the its new flag – consisting of background colours of orange, white and blue, with three smaller flags in the centre, the Union Flag, the flag of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Vierkleur – once again won only three medals. Boxer Harry Isaacs captured bronze in the bantamweight division, while Rhoda Rennie, Frederica van der Goes, Marie Redford and Kathleen Russell teamed up to finish third in the women’s 4x100m freestyle relay, winning the first ever swimming medal for South Africa, while producing the first ever medal-winning performance from South African women. Clarence Walker won South Africa’s first Olympic boxing gold medal in the bantamweight division. It was the start of a run of success for South African boxers at the Olympics, which led to the sport becoming the country’s most successful medal winner at the Games, apart from athletics. At the top, the USA edged Sweden for the most golds – 25 to 24, but the Swedes captured the most medals – 65 to the USA’s 63. St Louis 1904South Africa first competed in the Olympic Games in St Louis in 1904. Unfortunately, the country failed to win a single medal. That was not really surprising as the squad consisted of only three marathon runners and a tug-of-war team. It was eight years before the Olympic Games were held again because of the First World War. Antwerp in Belgium was the host city. At the age of 19 years and 128 days, Walker remains the youngest 100 metres champion in the history of the Olympics. In terms of total medals won, Antwerp proved to be South Africa’s most successful Games. The 10 medals won stood as a record for the country until it was matched at the 1952 Helsinki Olympics. However, that mark has never been bettered. Sydney Atkinson secured the South African team’s only silver medal in the 110m hurdles, while Cecil McMaster completed the list of South African medal winners with a third place in the 10 kilometre walk. South Africa finished 15th on the medal table in Los Angeles. The best performers were Len Tau, who finished ninth in the marathon, while the tug-of-war team ended fifth. The Games were dominated by the USA, which was not surprising as not more than 60 athletes from outside North America are reported to have taken part in the 1904 Games. It would take until 2004 for another South African to match Rudd’s feat of a medal of every colour at an Olympic Games. London 1908 18 July 2012 Great Britain was far and away the most successful team. Its 56 gold medals was more than the total number of medals claimed by the United States, which finished second in the standings with a total of 47 medals, 23 of which were gold. Rudolph Lewis raced to gold in the road cycling event, and continuing the endurance theme, Ken McArthur took victory in the marathon. Christian Gitsham finished second to McArthur, to add another silver medal to that won by Kitson in the tennis. Bevil Rudd, who had served in the First World War and won the Military Cross for bravery, was the star of the team, winning medals of every colour. He was crowned champion in the 400 metres and helped South Africa to second place in the 4x400m relay. He added a bronze medal in the 800 metres. Paris 1924Paris hosted the Olympics in 1924. They were not nearly as successful for South Africa as the Antwerp Games. The hosts, the USA, dominated. Their 41 gold medals exceeded the total number of medals won by the second placed Italian team, and they tallied 103 medals in all. Italy won 12 gold and 36 medals in all, with France finishing in third place. With four gold and two silver medals, South Africa finished in seventh place on the medal table, the best position ever achieved by the country. The team of David Smith, Robert Brodley, Ferdinand Buchanan, George Harvey and Frederick Morgan also claimed silver in the men’s team 600m military rifle event. It remains the only shooting medal ever won by South Africa. Antwerp 1920 Marjorie Clark became the first South African woman to win an athletics medal after finishing third in the 80m hurdles, while Jenny Maakal claimed bronze in the 400m freestyle, making her the first South African woman to win an individual swimming medal at the Olympic Games. There was another South African gold medal in tennis, with Louis Raymond defeating Ichiya Kumagai, who became Japan first ever Olympic medallist, 5-7, 6-4, 7-5, 6-4 in the final of the men’s singles. With three gold medals, four silvers, and three bronzes, South Africa placed 11th on the medal table. The USA led the way with a total of 95 medals, including 41 golds. Sweden again placed second, with Great Britain in third. Los Angeles 1932 How much do you know about South Africa’s history at the Olympics? When was the country’s best performance? Who are SA’s top Olympians? Check out the records and the trivia in the first of three articles covering the 18 Olympic Games the country has competed in. Two South Africans became Olympic champions. David Carstens continued the country’s success in the boxing ring, lifting the light-heavyweight title after defeating Italian Gino Rossi in the final, while Lawrence Stevens, competing in the lightweight division, defeated Thure Ahlqvist of Sweden to win gold. Tennis player Charles Winslow won gold in the men’s doubles with Harold Kitson. He also beat his doubles partner to win the men’s singles. Cycling produced more success, with Henry Kaltenbrun finishing second in the men’s individual time trial and Wlliam Smith and James Walker ending second in the men’s tandem, an event which was discontinued after the 1972 Munich Olympics. Silver medals went to Bevil Rudd’s relay team-mates Henry Dafel, Clarence Oldfield, and Jack Oosterlaak. Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material One might have expected success in the rugby competition, the only one held in Olympic history, but just three teams entered – the USA, France and Romania – with the Americans emerging as the champions.last_img read more

first_imgThis is a really good quality wig. Nice colour, lots of hair, very secure and well-constructed cap so fits snugly on your head and stays put. The hair itself feels nice and somehow not as plasticky as other cheap wigs. Also does not get as static-ky which can be a problem with cheap wigs. I bought this for a costume party but it is good enough quality to wear every day as looks quite real. As others have mentioned, bit straggly on the longest hair at the back so trimmed this to make it thicker. I usually have my parting on the left and could not get this to look as good worn this way as wants to fall with part on the right – if this matters to you. Comes with a hair net to wear under. Great value for money, my daughter wanted it as she has had to have her hair cut short & this looks great, she is very pleased. Fits perfectly, had to cut it as its way too long, i also made a fringe. It came in a beautiful box but it was tangled and it shredded some hair. All together i’m really happy i brought this. I have blue hair at the moment and had to go to a family function and this did the trick in looking real enough to pass off as my own, its a little bit darker than i was hoping but with a little bit of cutting it looked like my own. Absaloutley Fantastic!A nice natural wig Great value for moneyi loved this wig so muchExcellent quality wigExactly as ExpectedMelodySusie® Dark Brown Curly Wigs – Natural, Heat Resistant and Full Wavy Wigs for Women, High Quality Wig with Free Wig Cap and Wig CombUnique and stylish long hair wig looks like your real hair, natural pretty and feminineThe color brightens your skin and makes you fashionable and charmingThese wigs are made of soft thick lustrous Kanekalon which are durable enough for long term useEasy to clean and take careItem also includes a MelodySusie wig cap to help you wear the wig and create a neat looking Its an incredible wig , quiet unique and stylish. I ordered a dark brown one as this is the one closest to my hair color. The wig looks quiet long and next to your real hair. The wig is quiet shiny and soft. It also come along with a cap and a comb. The wig comes with some waves and curls to give it a natural look. The internal net comes with two adjustment straps which can be intertwined to a fixed position, and can be adjusted to different head sizes. Pros:-lightweight, durable, convenient, fits within your budget. The wig arrived really well packaged and was delivered quicker than expected. I have long blonde hair so was excited to have a change of colour. I absolutely love this wig, it looks great and really realistic.It’s very natural in colour and looks really pretty. It feels nice and soft and is easy enough to comb through. Please note: the seller has kindly let me purchase this item at a reduced price in order for me to test the product and leave my honest, fair and totally impartial review. I aim to cover good and bad bits (if appropriate). All of the opinions are my own and i always review the product as if i had paid full price. I always aim to include information that a buyer would find useful in order for them to decide whether or not the products right for them. I love this wig i did a review of it on my youtube channel, it looks and feels so real. Thank you so much for such a great product, well worth the money. It is so comfortable to wear, it doesnt slip or pull, it smells just like human hair, it doesnt feel like barbie hair, its texture feels exactly like human hair. Artived on time, exactly as described, colour spot on, looks so real, hangs lovely, brilliant value for money will definitely be keeping my eyes open for future bargains. Came very quickly only waited two days. Good quality, not too shiny, only its too long and a lighter colour than i thought but apart from that its perfect.Great service im really pleased. It came the day after ordering which was such a pleasant surprise. The wig is very flexible, it can be changed and styled however you want. It’s rather long but perfect length for cosplaying so for every day use you may want to trim it a little bit. Wig cap and comb that came with it worked great and the wig looks and feels so realistic and for it’s price, its an absolute bargain.last_img read more

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The 84th Annual Convention of the Ohio Farmers Union will feature events and speakers aimed at young and beginning farmers as well as tackle issues important to Ohio’s independent, family farmers.“OFU’s annual meeting will address issues along a spectrum from nutrient management in the Lake Erie watershed to the opioid crisis in rural Ohio,” said OFU President Joe Logan.“We will also have a special focus on local food systems and young and beginning farmers at this year’s event,” Logan said.OFU’s convention will be held January 26 – 27 at the Columbus Airport Marriott. Ohio Dept. of Agriculture Director David Daniels will deliver remarks around 1 p.m. to open the convention.Along with OFU convention business, delegates and attendees will hear from speakers addressing local food hubs in Ohio, an update from Ohio State University on the state of water quality in the western basin of Lake Erie and a group including family members who have lost relatives in Ohio’s opioid crisis with a representative from the Ohio Attorney General’s office to update delegates on the crisis.On Saturday, OFU will award its ‘Legislator of the Year’ and two college scholarships at the concluding luncheon.For information and to view a draft agenda, see ohfarmersunion.org.last_img read more

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest No major changes this morning. Dry weather will take control for the next 2 days over the state. Cooler air pushes in over the state, but we are staving off the bitter cold push still until this weekend. We should see a good mix of clouds and sun today, and winds should subside over the gusty set up we saw yesterday. We start to dry down tonight and see dry weather for tomorrow and Thursday too. Rain is back for overnight tomorrow night through Friday. Moisture totals remain mostly unimpressive and we are bumping our forecast at .1″ to .7” over 70% of the state, but most of the rain totals above .4″ will be down near the river. Temps go near to below freezing overnight tomorrow night and do not recover Friday morning through much of the day. This may allow for some wet snow to mix in with our precipitation, even though it is light. The map at right shows liquid equivalent moisture totals through the end of the day Friday. Dry and significantly colder air returns for the weekend. Temps will be well below normal, and there no change in our thoughts about the potential for Saturday to see daytime highs stay below freezing over parts of the state.  Sunday can be sub-40 for highs over a large part of the region. We stay dry Monday through Wednesday of next week. We likely see clouds from time to time, but no new precipitation. Thursday, we see Clouds build and then have a chance of scattered showers north of US 30 in the morning. The rain threat extends to statewide by mid to late afternoon and goes through the overnight. We can see from .05”-.25” with 70% coverage. For the extended period, we are dry for next Friday and Saturday. But, then we move into another wet, active period for Sunday the 18th through Wednesday the 21st. We see at least 2 waves of moisture moving over the eastern corn belt in that time, perhaps more. Combined rain totals will be from .25”-.75” with the heaviest rain chances in the southern half of the state.last_img read more

first_imgDoes it pay to turn down the heat at night when you have a radiant-floor heating system? David Meiland and a heating contractor are having trouble seeing eye to eye on that question.Meiland says the house they’re discussing is a slab-on-grade with R-10 insulation below and PEX tubing cast into the slab. In another part of the house, the floor is framed, with PEX installed below in tandem with aluminum plates that help distribute the heat. The boiler is a 30-kW electric model with an outdoor reset.In a Q&A post at GreenBuildingAdvisor, Meiland writes, “The heating contractor advised the homeowner that setting the night-time thermostat temperature too low would cause the system to work very hard in the morning to get the slab back up to temperature, and therefore waste energy.“My opinion is that lowering the setpoint at night is a good thing, as the system will put fewer BTUs into the house, saving energy. When the system ramps up in the morning, it will reheat the slab without any loss of efficiency. Fewer total BTUs will be put into the house.” High-mass floors respond slowlyWhile there is a mix of flooring types in the house, several readers pointed out that the high mass of a concrete slab will not change temperatures very quickly — and that has a bearing on the practicality of turning down the heat at night.Cramer Silkworth, for example, writes that if the house is well insulated, its occupants may not experience an overnight drop in temperature even with the thermostat turned down. “The slab’s mass combined with a well-insulated envelope may carry it through the night with only a small drop in temperature,” he says.When morning rolls around, he adds, it will take some time before the slab can be brought back to temperature. “The system won’t ‘work hard’ to bring the slab back up to temperature (it may be at full load, but the heat’s not being lost any faster than it normally would),” Silkworth says, “but it will take some time, such that you’d need to set the system to come on a couple hours before you want the morning temperature reached.”The relatively slow response to change also can lead to uncomfortable temperatures both in the morning and later in the day, Keith Gustafson says.“If the setback is too deep and the concrete loses significant temperature, it will take hours to reheat, and the residents may be uncomfortable,” Gustafson writes. “Radiant just does not recover like baseboard or hot air.”“In the morning,” he adds, “your thermostat turns back on but the physics of thermal mass say you need to put ‘x’ BTUs into the slab before it will rise in temp, and thus allow the room to rise. If you put enough BTUs into it quickly enough to ramp room temperature up, then the mass will cause it to overshoot — and how does having the room at 78 degrees 3 hours after you go to work save energy?”Dan Kolbert makes the same point. Not only does it take a long time for the temperature to come back, but it puts a strain on the heating system. “One client went away on vacation, turned the heat down to 50,” Kolbert writes. “It took almost a week to get back to temperature, and she had very little hot water while she waited.” RELATED ARTICLES All About Radiant Floors Radiant-Floor Heating Goodbye Radiant Floor Is Radiant Floor Heat Really the Best Option? Heating a Tight, Well-Insulated House Radiant-Floor Heating: When It Does—and Doesn’t—Make Sense The heating system may be overkillGBA senior editor Martin Holladay adds another wrinkle to the conversation: in a tight, well-insulated house, you don’t need much of a heating system when the design temperature is a relatively balmy 30 degrees, as is the case with Worthington’s house.“What you need is a good airtight envelope with high levels of insulation and excellent windows,” Holladay says. “If you have those features, you won’t need much heat at 30°F — certainly not a high-mass radiant floor with a condensing gas water heater. Your internal loads — the refrigerator, lights, and TV — will provide much of your home’s heat. A few ductless minisplit units are all you will need for cool nights.” Would better thermostats help?Writing from the San Francisco Bay area, Monty Worthington describes the trouble he’s had in regulating temperatures in his new house with radiant-floor heating and very basic thermostats. After some tinkering, he’s learned that a 3-degree setback overnight and in the middle of the day seems to work. But he has to program the heat to kick on at 5 a.m. in the bedroom in order to be comfortable two hours later when he gets up.Meiland says he had the same experience while living in that area in a house with a staple-up radiant floor system. “When the temperature swings were in the 30-degree range, it was necessary to start gaining or losing heat 3 to 4 hours in advance,” Meiland says. “This was a quick-responding system: 7/8-in. fir plank subfloor, 5/16-in. hardwood over, well-insulated underneath.”AJ Builder suggests that a forced-air heating system has faster response times than radiant-floor heat, but Worthington wonders whether a more sophisticated thermostat would help.Silkworth had earlier suggested that some thermostats are capable or learning how long it takes the heating system to reach the set point and automatically compensating for it.Kevin Dickson writes, “The newer Honeywell thermostats can ‘learn’ the temperature response of your house and compensate to prevent overshoot in any house.” Meiland thinks the heating contractor has it wrong, confusing a period of high demand in the morning with low efficiency.That’s the focus of this month’s Q&A Spotlight. Our expert’s opinionHere’s how GBA technical director Peter Yost sees it:First, a bit of a rant on radiant floor heating. While there is no denying the thermal comfort of a radiant floor heating system, the following claims are often made but are just not true:Radiant floor heating is more efficient than other heat distribution systems.Radiant floor heats objects and surfaces, not the air (this is often cited to support #1 above).Even at peak delivery, radiant floor heating systems deliver a maximum 60% of their heat by way of radiation. The two factors driving radiant heat transfer are surface area and surface temperature differences. At floor temperatures in the low 90s (F), net radiant transfer, particularly with people (our surface temperatures are in the low to mid 90s), is minimal. And the thermal comfort of the warm floor is more one of [no-glossary]conduction[/no-glossary] to your feet than radiation.And as a slow-acting, high thermal mass system, any initial air temperature from setback is steadily eroded until at equilibrium, the air temperature profile of a radiant floor heating system is pretty much the same as any heating distribution system and more dependent on the performance of the building envelope.Just because someone decided to name this system “radiant floor heat” does not mean that the laws of thermodynamics and rules of heat transfer are suspended by terminology.It’s not that radiant floor heating cannot work well; it’s just that it is a very expensive way to provide space conditioning — and one that only provides heating, not cooling, at that.With any high-mass heat distribution system, setback can be a real balancing act between thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sure, setback saves BTUs, but if the main advantage of radiant-floor heating is thermal comfort, the prolonged thermal lag of a high mass heating system in the morning or when you return home in the evening is not likely to be very welcomed.And depending on solar gain, particularly in the morning, overshoot can be a big problem with nighttime setback of high-mass heat distribution systems. Certainly, setbacks cannot be as deep as with faster-acting heat distribution systems.We have ramp-up, multi-input setback thermostats for heat pumps, ones that use outdoor temperature readings and patterns to minimize strip heat use. I don’t know if similar thermostats are available for radiant-floor heat, or if the heat pump thermostats can be used with radiant-floor heat, but they are not inexpensive and can be “fooled” by dramatic weather changes.The long and the short of it: Specify or use radiant-floor heating for its steady delivery of thermal comfort, not because it is more efficient or well-suited to energy savings associated with setbacks.last_img read more