GAME ESSENTIALS: 49ers (2-0) vs. Pittsburgh (0-2) at Levi’s Stadium on Sunday at 1:25 p.m. (PT)TV: CBS-TV, Greg Gumbel … Follow along Sunday beginning at 1:25 p.m. for in-game insights and analysis when the 49ers look for their third consecutive victory when they take on the Steelers in Santa Clara. Click here if you’re unable to view the video or photo gallery on your mobile device.Watch: 49ers head coach Kyle Shanahan on his team’ win versus the Steelers.
(Visited 10 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The assumption was that gene flow homogenized a population, and selection diversified it. But now, two studies in Nature1,2 of an English songbird called the great tit, Parus major, carried on for decades, has shown that differences between closely-associated populations can persist in spite of homogenizing gene flow. Garant et al. explain the significance of this to evolutionary theory:Evolutionary theory predicts that local population divergence will depend on the balance between the diversifying effect of selection and the homogenizing effect of gene flow. However, spatial variation in the expression of genetic variation will also generate differential evolutionary responses. Furthermore, if dispersal is non-random it may actually reinforce, rather than counteract, evolutionary differentiation. Here we document the evolution of differences in body mass within a population of great tits, Parus major, inhabiting a single continuous woodland, over a 36-year period. We show that genetic variance for nestling body mass is spatially variable, that this generates different potential responses to selection, and that this diversifying effect is reinforced by non-random dispersal. Matching the patterns of variation, selection and evolution with population ecological data, we argue that the small-scale differentiation is driven by density-related differences in habitat quality affecting settlement decisions. Our data show that when gene flow is not homogeneous, evolutionary differentiation can be rapid and can occur over surprisingly small spatial scales. Our findings have important implications for questions of the scale of adaptation and speciation, and challenge the usual treatment of dispersal as a force opposing evolutionary differentiation. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)David W. Coltman (U of Alberta),3 commenting on these papers, summarized, “Gene flow between populations – caused by migration, for instance – is most often viewed as a homogenizing force in evolution. But two studies of wild birds and non-random dispersal find otherwise.” These long-term studies complicate theories. He says: “we ought to be paying more attention to how quantitative genetic variation is spatially and temporally structured.” But even that is not enough: “Indeed, a truly mechanistic understanding of microevolution requires an understanding of genetic architecture (the properties of the individual genes underlying variation). One way of gaining such an understanding of microevolution in nature will be to apply genomics to ecological and evolutionary studies in non-model species, using comparative approaches.” The fact that he speaks in future tense indicates this has never been done.1Garant et al., “Evolution driven by differential dispersal within a wild bird population,” Nature 433, 60 – 65 (06 January 2005); doi:10.1038/nature03051.2Postma and Van Noordwijk, “Gene flow maintains a large genetic difference in clutch size at a small spatial scale,” Nature 433, 60 – 65 (06 January 2005); doi:10.1038/nature03051.3David W. Coltman, “Evolutionary genetics: Differentiation by dispersal,” Nature 433, 23 – 24 (06 January 2005); doi:10.1038/433023a.On the surface, this looks like it could accelerate evolution by removing the homogenizing effect of gene flow. But consider what these papers indicate. First, assumptions can be flat wrong. Many evolutionists assumed, with armchair modeling, that populations with many opportunities for interbreeding would become more homogeneous. Both these studies, however, showed that slight differences in clutch size and body mass could be maintained in spite of shared habitat. Second, they found that differentiation of two populations can be rapid and occur in a small area. Keep in mind that these studies involve only microevolution. They are about one species of bird, Parus major, that were still the same species at the beginning and end of the observations. They have nothing to say, therefore, about the origin of birds, the origin of flight, the origin of feathers, the origin of species or any other major change that would help Charlie feel gratified. In fact, creationists could use these studies to support the idea that microevolution was rapid after the Flood. The evolutionists themselves were surprised that their assumptions about population genetics were wrong, and admitted that these studies “challenge the usual treatment” of dispersal, as well as gene flow and selection, as agents of evolution. If you cannot trust your assumptions, you cannot trust your models; and if you cannot trust your models, you cannot trust your perception of reality. Incidentally, despite its embarrassing name, the great tit is beautiful bird. The picture accompanying David Coltman’s commentary shows the bird in flight, wings splayed in geometrical artistry, exquisitely-designed feathers extended, handsome black-capped head, food in its beak, alert eyes, displaying aerodynamic excellence. Differences in clutch size and egg size say nothing about these examples of functional adaptation par excellence. The caption reads, “The great tit: challenging assumptions about gene flow and genetic differentiation.” Darwinists preach macroevolution, but cannot understand microevolution. They want to explain the whole living world by their theory, and can’t even get the population genetics of one species of bird right.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Ohio Farm Bureau Foundation recently awarded $20,700 in grants to organizations that support and promote Ohio’s agricultural industry as well as local communities. The foundation’s Action & Awareness grants focus on four core areas: economic development, education, environment and the human-animal bond.Grant recipients are:AgriPOWER to support two scholarships for Ohio Farm Bureau’s intensive, year-long leadership program for farmers and agribusiness professionals.Crown Point Ecology Center to help convert an existing building into a honey extraction and beeswax processing facility that will be available to local northeastern Ohio beekeepers.Friends of the Juvenile Court in Clinton County to help expand an existing program that pairs at-risk youth with local farmers through the 4-H process.Ohio Energy Project in support of its Energy Sources Tour and Energy Sources Blitz programs that give teachers behind-the-scenes access to the energy industry.Ohio Hop Growers Guild to support its 2019 Ohio Hop Conference in January.The next application cycle for an Action & Awareness Grant is Jan. 1 to April 30, 2019. Grants may be used for general support, startup funding for new organizations, program expansion, or capital for equipment necessary to implement eligible programs. Learn more at ofbf.org/foundation/aagrants/.
Check out this creative short video that makes a big impact with it’s small design!What do you get when you combine pocket projectors, green screen footage and a unique creative vision? Speed of Light, a short video by London based directors The Theory and video studio Nexus Productions. The team recorded action against a green screen using actors, toy cars and a model helicopter. They projection mapped the video on the walls and desktops of their office with small pocket projectors, for a totally unique effect.Astonishingly, the video was completed using all real images and no CGI. Tight editing and effective sound design tied the whole piece together.
Bharatiya Janata Party’s (BJP) Michael Lobo was on Friday elected as Deputy Speaker of Goa Legislative Assembly.The two-time MLA from Calangute defeated Congress nominee Izidore Fernandes by 21-15 during the third and final day of the Budget session here.While the lone Nationalist Congress MLA, Churchill Alemao, did not participate in the voting, Congress’ MLA Fransisco Silveira reached late to the House.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday inaugurated the country’s longest road tunnel that links Kashmir Valley with Jammu by an all-weather route and reduces the distance by 30 km.The 9-km long ‘Chenani-Nashri Tunnel,’ built at the cost of ₹2,500 crore, was dedicated to the nation by the Prime Minister in Chenani in the presence of Jammu and Kashmir Governor N.N. Vohra and Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti.”Kashmiri youths have two options: tourism and terrorism. For 40 years terrorism gave you nothing but bloodshed, deaths and destruction. Had you chosen tourism, the benefits today would have been phenomenal,” said Mr. Modi after the inauguration.”Want to tell the Kashmiri youth what actually is the power of stones. On one side, youth in Kashmir throwing stone. On other side, people giving their blood and sweat, cutting rocks for Kashmir’s development,” he added.After the inauguration, Mr. Modi, along with Mr. Vohra and Ms. Mehbooba, travelled in an open jeep through the tunnel for some distance.The Prime Minister, the Governor and the Chief Minister then posed for a photograph with the engineers who were involved in construction of the tunnel. A screen grab of the newly inaugurated Chenani-Nashri tunnel, in Jammu and Kashmir on Sunday. Courtesy: Narendra Modi – YouTube “Tunnel to bring Kashmir closer to the country”J&K Chief Minister Minister Mehbooba Mufti welcomed Mr. Modi and said the tunnel would bring Kashmir closer to the country. “The tunnel will not just reduce the physical distance but bring Kashmir closer to the country. The inauguration of tunnels will also help (sic) to join the hearts of the people,” she said.She thanked Mr. Modi for his support during the unrest in the State in 2016. “The situation has improved now but lot needs to be done. We have won all wars but our real strength is democracy. We have to help to bring the people out of trouble through agenda of alliance,” she added.”The J&K tour operators have a message for you: Kashmir is a safe place for tourists,” she further said.Tunnel to reduce travel timeThe tunnel, bypassing snow-bound upper reaches, will reduce the journey time by two hours and provide a safe, all-weather route to commuters travelling from Jammu and Udhampur to Ramban, Banihal and Srinagar.The estimated value of daily fuel savings will be to the tune of ₹27 lakh, according to the PMO.The tunnel is equipped with world-class security systems, and is expected to boost tourism and economic activities in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.The Chenani-Nashri Tunnel is a single-tube bi-directional tunnel with a 9.35-metre carriageway and a vertical clearance of 5 metres.There is also a parallel escape tunnel, with ‘Cross Passages’ connecting to the main tunnel at intervals of 300 metres.It also has smart features such as an integrated traffic control system; surveillance, ventilation and broadcast systems; fire fighting system; and SOS call-boxes at every 150 metres.
Replantation of an amputated part is ideally performed within 4 to 6 hours after injury, but success has been reported up to 24 hours after the injury if the amputated part has been cooled. During surgery, bone, tendon, ligaments, nerves, and vessels are reattached. Success depends upon if the blood supply can fully be restored to the amputated portion and if the nerves reattach successfully. Proper care of the amputated part is vital to successful replantation. Under proper conditions, the long-term prognosis for the restoration of function in an amputated part is quite good.Review Date:8/11/2012Reviewed By:Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington. C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
Dara O’Briain, Melanie C, Jack Dee, Chelsee Healey, Phillips Idowu and Greg James have started the biggest challenge of their lives, The BT Red Nose Challenge: Hell and High Water – a five day ordeal which sees them attempt to travel under their own steam down Africa’s mighty Zambezi river and raise as much cash as possible for Red Nose Day.The challenge is sponsored by BT, a long term supporter of Comic Relief challenges since 2009.The challenge started promptly at 8am on Monday and all was going swimmingly until Melanie C accidentally whacked Greg James in the head with her oar as the paddling-pair tackled their first set of rapids! It was a rare accident for the Spice Girls’ nimble Sporty Spice who has spent most of her time looking after Chelsee Healey since she forgot to pack her pyjamas after only a day away from home. Comedian Jack Dee had no such trouble with his belongings as the group decided his bag was the best packed of the bunch.It’s not all pyjamas and bag-packing though, after only a few hours in the team are already suffering with neuromuscular aches and pains in their arms due to paddling against the current. Phillips Idowu is feeling extra cautious as he revealed he can jump further than he can swim – something which won’t come in handy when he inevitably gets a soaking this week. Although fellow challenger Greg James will be sure to give him a hand hauling him back out of the water as the DJ revealed earlier today that he’s determined to have bigger biceps than Olympian Phillips by the end of the week.Dara said: “We’ve done 22 kilometres and I can definitely say the second part of that has been just as painful as the first. Chelsee and I have been working as a team and in any usual circumstances our worlds wouldn’t collide but we’ve become like an old married couple today, bickering about rowing. The hardest thing so far is keeping the boat in a straight line. We’ve spent a surprising amount of today facing the wrong country and nearly ended up in Botswana a couple of times! But we’re all aware it’s likely to get worse and worse. This is only day one.”The six strong team will push themselves to the limit as they travel 111km down the deadly Zambezi river, battling torrential downpours and negotiating rapids officially known as ‘Gnashing Jaws of Death’, ‘The Washing Machine’ and ‘Oblivion’ as they make their way beyond the world’s largest waterfall – Victoria Falls.Along the way they’re likely to encounter some of the world’s most dangerous and frightening creatures, like crocodiles, lethal snakes and one of the most deadly – hippos! By night there will be none of the five star luxury they’re used to, as they’ll be camping on treacherous cliff tops and damp, soggy riverbanks. And as if that wasn’t enough, they’re also likely to suffer nasty blisters, intense aching limbs and sweltering 30-degree heat, as they spend each day covering up to 29km on the river.The team are putting themselves through hell and high water in the hope of raising £1 million to help children in Zambia go to school. This could pay for life-changing education for thousands of vulnerable girls, for whom it means an escape from poverty and safety from child marriage and pregnancy. Any extra money raised will help those living unimaginably tough lives across the UK and the rest of Africa.BT is giving £30,000 a day to support the Hell and High Water team as part of the £500,000 it has committed to raise in support of The BT Red Nose Challenges – a duo of celebrity challenges sponsored by BT for Red Nose Day 2013.To help the stars raise stacks of cash, sponsor them now at rednoseday.com/zambezi.